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PozycjaAssessing the political stability of Oman(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2005) Mark N., Katz"Compared to neighboring Saudi Arabia, there is very little press coverage on Oman. And unlike the many stories about how bad things are in the kingdom, the little reporting done on the sultanate is generally positive. It would be a mistake, however, to conclude from Oman’s glowing press coverage that all is well there. Oman, in fact, is experiencing some very difficult problems that are likely to get worse in coming years."(...) PozycjaBliski Wschód 2011: bunt czy rewolucja?(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2011) Zdanowski, JerzyTimely, Middle East 2011: Rebellion or Revolution? looks at the roots of the historic uprisings sweeping the Middle East and offers a vision of how this upheaval will transform the Arab World and the world as a whole. Jerzy Zdanowski, Professor in Middle Eastern Studies, is asking what has taken place in the Middle East: a revolution or a rebellion? Answering this question, he refers to economy, society and culture of the Middle East, and stresses that the Arab Spring is a result of processes of long durée, namely erosion of patriarchalism, emancipation of women and sexual revolution, conflicts between generations, transformation of patterns of consumption, and emergence of new drama, poetry and music in the Arab world. Cultural anthropology indicates evidences of fundamental changes in cultural code of Middle Eastern societies. The author highlights the influence of global trends in economy and culture on the Middle Eastern society, and especially global financial crisis which in 2009 struck the Arab economies at the stage of their rapid growth on a wave of liberalisation and privatisation begun at the beginning of the 21st century. The transformation of their economies began, however, in the 1970s and produced fundamental changes in the social structure. The new middle class emerged as a consequence of centralisation, bureaucratisation, liberalisation and privatisation, and at the same time, the old middle class, called effendiyya, faced pauperisation and marginalisation. Social mobility was enormously dynamic in the Arab societies in the 20th century and is considered by the author a key factor for the understanding of present developments in the region. In the consequence of the neo-liberal economic policy, some segments of Arab societies were moving up, but some of them were moving down in the social hierarchy, and they were the ones who rebelled and revolted. The new social media contributed to the Arab Spring enormously and its role is investigated in the book together with the roles of Islamism and the Muslim Brotherhood, Arab armies, and of external actors – the USA, the European Union, Iran, and Turkey. But the factor that determines the present developments in the Middle Easy to the greatest extent is demography. The book emphasizes it and its influence on employment, education, standard of living, and the opportunities that the Arab youth have for a better life. The final chapter contains the outlooks for the region’s future and points to certain dangers, especially to populism. The book combines bibliography and chronology of events in the region from December 2010 to September 2011. As a whole, the book offers a vivid portrait of history in the making. PozycjaDemocratizing the Arab states. The case of monarchies of the Gulf, 1991-2004(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2004) Kapiszewski, Andrzej"The Arab Humań Development Reports 2002 and 2003, prepared by a group of leading Arab intellectuals under the auspices of the UNDP and the Arab Fund for Social and Economic Development brought a very pessimistic view of the Arab world.1 The combined gross domestic product of the 22 Arab countries was lesser than Spain’s. Labor productivity in these countries dropped between 1960 and 1990, while it soared elsewhere in the world. Even Africa outperformed the Arab world in rates of economic growth. An exploding population cannot be supported by scarce resources and every other citizen is ready to emigrate. At the same time, the wealthiest 85,000 Saudis have overseas assets of $700 billions."(...) PozycjaOrdering what cannot be done is not possible. The Legal Reasoning of Nūr al-Dīn al-Sālimī (1869–1914)(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2022) Zdanowski, JerzyNūr al-Dīn al-Sālimī is generally known as an Omani historian. However, al-Sālimī was an outstanding jurist who formulated over 1,500 maxims (qawāʿid), making him a thinker of great importance for Islamic jurisprudence. In Oman, he is believed to have been the most important Ibāḍī jurist after Ibn Baraka (d. 972). What was his method for deriving legal and ethical maxims? Al-Sālimī asks several questions: (1) what is particular and general, and how can a generalization be derived from specific cases? (2) what factors are necessary for a phenomenon to occur? (3) is every fact unique, and should it be treated separately? We maintain that al-Sālimī’s heuristic was based on induction and consisted of analysing individual facts from fiqh al-ʿibādāt (rules governing the relationship between man and God) in order to formulate generalizations that could be applied in fiqh al-muʿāmalāt (rules governing relations between humans).