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PozycjaThe Middle East 2011 : high ideas and reality = Bliski Wschód 2011 : szczytne idee a rzeczywistość(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2011) Zdanowski, Jerzy PozycjaTransformacja polityczna w egipcie w okresie prezydentury Muhammada Mursiego(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2013) Lipa, MichałThis article refers to the second phase of political transformation in Egypt, which coincides with the period of Muhammad Morsi’s presidency. The attention is paid not only to the internal dimension of the transformation, but also its main external circumstances. With regard to the functioning of the Egyptian political system, there were no significant changes – comparing to the period preceding the M. Morsi’s presidency. The holding of free elections (parliamentary and presidential) does not mean that Egypt has become a democratic state. It rather remains the state that “stuck” in transition, especially after the coup of July 3, 2013. PozycjaZnaczenie Arabskiej Wiosny(Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, 2013) Zdanowski, JerzyAt the turn of 2011, turbulent events occurred in the Middle East that have become known all over the world as the ‘Arab Spring’. Initially, these protests were a form of civil disobedience. Later, the situation developed in several directions. In Jordan, Algeria, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Mauritania, Sudan and Oman, the authorities managed to convince the public that they would meet their needs and introduce new reforms. The authorities in Syria, Libya, Yemen and Bahrain took the severest positions. In Tunisia and Egypt free elections were conducted, and these countries have started to build a democratic system. This experiment was interrupted in Egypt on July 3, 2013 by the intervention of the army. In the light of these events, can one assume that the Arab Spring is a closed chapter in the history of the Middle East, and that the hope for democracy in the countries of the region have been buried forever? This article refers to the sources of the ‘Arab Spring’ and demonstrates its importance for the history of the region.