Obywatel w państwie. Kilka uwag o typach ładu zbiorowego i społeczeństwie polskim
Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM
In the paper the author singles out three types of social order, that is the way of a social organization from the political power point of view: 1) religious order, 2) masterful order, and 3) civil order. The basic form of the social order is the state. According to the author the main difference between, from one had, the first two types, and the third from the other, lies in different political relation between the government and the rank and fi le members of the state. In the case of the fi rst two types – religious and masterful – all members, “citizens”, are subject to the state, whereas in the case of civil order – the state is subject to its citizens. Poland after demise of communism has developed apparently a civil state, but Polish civil society has been still rather weak. The author of the essay is searching for the roots of this weakness in the Polish history.
Państwo i Społeczeństwo 2012, nr 1, s. 13-25.